Things to Consider While selecting a medical waste disposal company – Specialists are specially trained and equipped for the ongoing collection and management of clinical waste. But we don’t pay much attention to where our waste ends up. In this blog, our experts will explain what’s involved in clinical waste safety and treatment, why it’s important, and where your clinical waste is going.
Collection of clinical waste includes color-coded containers that indicate what should be disposed of in each container, as well as how and where they should be transported for treatment or disposal. The colors are organized according to how dangerous or infectious the content is.
When choosing a clinical waste disposal company, it is important to consider whether they accept this process, as mixing different types of waste is strictly prohibited.
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Orange Lid Boxes – Items contaminated with body fluids or organic tissue; tips, wipes, bandages and gloves.
Yellow and Black – Non-hazardous sanitary waste such as; diapers, wipes, gloves, and any clothing containing non-infectious body fluids.
Yellow biohazard bags should be used to contain contaminated medical waste such as chemicals and body fluids.
It is important to place the correct clinical waste in the correct containers, as the next step depends on which category the contents fall into.
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Most all clinical waste is incinerated, one of the many waste-to-energy technologies available today. It is a waste treatment process that uses extremely high temperatures to burn organic matter found in clinical waste.
During thermal processing, burnt materials turn into gas, ash and heat. However, the high-temperature heat produced by combustion can be recycled later as thermal energy. Also, the incineration process has been proven to reduce the mass of the original waste by more than 80%, as well as the volume of waste by more than 95%, so that only a fraction of the waste ends up in the landfill.
An alternative to incineration is the autoclave sterilization system. This is a required step for hazardous or infectious clinical waste that must be treated before it can be safely disposed of.
Although most surgical equipment is now a single-use item, great care must be taken when disposing of contaminated items.
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Examples of clinical waste requiring autoclave sterilization; dressings and dressings, tissues, other general infectious waste and any other waste belonging to clinical waste bins covered with orange lids.
Autoclave sterilization units are similar to large pressure cookers. The process involves first disposing of the waste, then putting the infected clinical waste into a large steel vessel, after which high-pressure saturated steam is pumped into the unit at a temperature of around 160 degrees. The high-pressure steam is then held for about 25 minutes, while the hot air destroys all germs and other dangerous microorganisms.
The end product is a disintegrating mass of harmless fibrous material. Although autoclave systems reduce the volume of waste by approximately 60%, only 17.5% of this waste is available for recycling. The rest of the non-hazardous waste is then transported to landfills or incinerators.
Read more about our comprehensive range of clinical waste disposal services available through our UK Clinical Waste Service Center location.
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Marketing cookies are used to track visitors to websites. The goal is to serve ads that are relevant and engaging to the individual user, and therefore to publishers and third-party advertisers. In the process of providing assistance, hazardous waste may be generated from health facilities. Mismanagement of medical waste is responsible for transmission of more than 30 dangerous blood groups. The aim of this systematic review was to assess health care waste management practices and potential challenges in Ethiopia.
Electronic databases and direct Google searches yielded 1,742 articles, of which 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of hazardous waste generated in Ethiopian health care facilities was unacceptably high, ranging from 21 to 70%. Most studies show a lack of proper waste segregation practices at the source of generation. Treatment of medical waste using empty incinerators and/or open burning and open burial of cremated ashes are common. Lack of knowledge of health workers, lack of adequate waste management services by utilities, and oversight by regulatory agencies were identified as common factors in most of the studies. Medical waste management practices in Ethiopian health facilities are unsatisfactory. The waste disposal process should be closely monitored by regulatory agencies or other interested parties.
In the process of providing medical care, healthcare facilities (HCFs) may generate waste and by-products . Currently, there are different terms used to explain the waste generated by HCFs, such as; waste from health facilities, clinical waste, healthcare waste, medical waste and biomedical waste. However, healthcare waste (HCW) is commonly used in previously published articles [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20, 21, 22, 23, 24]. In this study, we use the term HCF to refer to the total waste generated from HCFs.
Healthcare waste is divided into general and hazardous waste types [25, 26, 27]. The largest part of total waste comes from food preparation, administrative and household activities . And hazardous waste is generated in the process of providing medical care . It includes laboratory waste, pathological, body fluids and acute waste [25, 26]. According to the guidelines, six sequential steps of healthcare waste management (HCWM) should be implemented by HCFs [26, 28, 29, 30, 31]. This successful management process culminates in separation, collection, storage, transportation, treatment and final disposal [17, 26, 32] (Fig. 1).
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Proper disposal of HCW has become a global problem due to its public health risks [ 17 , 25 , 33 ]. According to the World Health Organization, 10-25% of HCV are dangerous . However, this proportion varies between 16 and 75% [6, 8, 12, 14, 21, 23, 34, 35]. Worldwide, more than two million healthcare workers are exposed to infections . HCW can transmit more than 30 dangerous blood-borne pathogens [ 36 ]. Poor HCWM is particularly a problem in many developing countries [ 5 , 12 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ]. Several studies show that HCWM is still in its infancy [ 3 , 7 , 15 , 16 ] and it is a neglected activity especially in Ethiopia [ 31 ]. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to assess HCWM practices and potential challenges in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia is a very densely populated country in Africa. In 2012, the population of Ethiopia was estimated at 84,320,987 . Along with rapid population growth, the number of HCFs is increasing [13, 42]. Care management is divided into primary, secondary and tertiary levels. In 2011, the country had 125 hospitals, 2,999 health centers, 15,668 medical centers, and more than 4,000 private clinics . Medical post, medical center and primary hospitals serve 3000-5000, 40000 and 60000-10000 population respectively. General and specialized hospitals serve a population of 1–1.5 and 3.5–5.0 million, respectively [ 44 ].
A qualitative research design was used to develop this systematic review. The study was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Priority Reporting Points for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines to ensure inclusion of relevant information in the study . Studies were only eligible if published in peer-reviewed journals in English, conducted in the Ethiopian context, and available in full-text format.
Published articles were searched in PubMed and Google Scholar by two researchers (TD and MG). The search strategy used a combination of keywords and boolean functions; “healthcare waste” OR “medical waste” OR “clinical waste” OR “infectious waste” OR “hospital waste” OR “healthcare waste” OR hazardous waste” OR “biomedical waste” OR “medical waste” AND “Ethiopia”. In addition to . , a direct Google search was also used. The searched articles of the two researchers were then compiled and checked for duplication. Finally, the reference lists cited by each eligible study were reviewed to identify additional articles. citation management.
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Two authors (TD and KA) independently extracted data using a predefined data extraction sheet. Discrepancies between the two data abstractions were resolved through discussion and involvement of a third co-author (KA). Data are abstracted
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