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This paper presents a narrative review of encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) through a psychosocial lens. and examining how this disability affects patients during adolescence and adulthood. and how it affects family caregivers and health professionals.
As there is no review in the literature The main psychosocial stress this review focuses on is loneliness. For this reason, and in an effort to help theorize how loneliness might affect ME/CFS, loneliness is examined and its relationship to loneliness is described. with chronic illness We conclude by discussing various coping strategies that ME/CFS individuals can use to manage their loneliness. Future directions and ways in which the literature can examine loneliness and ME/CFS are discussed.
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Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating neurological disease. This is known to cause a range of serious symptoms, known to include extreme fatigue, pain and discomfort after exertion.
Although this is believed to be the result of a genetic predisposition and/or interaction with several environmental factors (e.g., researchers have observed some regularity when trying to characterize the disease; for example, patients with ME/CFS have been observed. that There was a decrease in the rate of blood flow in the brainstem .
Abnormalities were also observed in various brain structures that regulate pain , leading recent studies to theorize that ME/CFS brain homeostatic processes. respond to pain Abnormal in nature . This abnormal brain function is presumably caused by a viral infection affecting the central nervous system , such as lymphadenopathy shortly before diagnosis . The effect extends to cognitive difficulty. sleep disorders and immune system disorders among other effects debilitating 
From the beginning, the concept of ME/CFS as a disease was fraught with controversy and dismissal from the medical community. Initially considered a psychopathic trait  and epidemic hysteria [8, 9], this false label persists to this day. The researchers noted that the medical community still has  (p. 309) An example of this can be seen in Canada.
In 2016, the federal science panel rejected a funding request for ME/CFS research, stating it was “non-disease.”  Although “biomedical research funding dedicated to ME/CFS research was finally accepted in less than a year , this example illustrates the ignorance of those who Therefore, institutions such as the National Academies classify Sciences Engineering and Current Medicine as ME/CFS as a stigma .
While the ignorance directed at this disease is largely due to the lack of a holistic scientific understanding of the exact precursors of this disease  and the lack of standardized procedures to verify its existence,  ME/CFS is known to cause It causes irritation between the brain, spinal cord, and musculoskeletal system [14, 15, 16, 17], hence the term myalgia encephalomyelitis.
Thus, the Latin words “myalgia” for muscle pain, “encephalo” for the brain, and “myel” for the spinal cord are translated into Latin. As well as physical disabilities presented earlier. Tells only one side of the story of ME/CFS patients: People with the disorder tend to have many negative consequences that are not physical.
This affects anxiety, depression and general well-being . An improvement period filled with both expected and unexpected new vulnerabilities occurred after ME/CFS diagnosis. For the most part, the major non-physical changes that ME/CFS patients generally endure include learning how to cope with psychosocial disabilities related to family structure. Loss of individuality and reduced social networks [10, 19, 20, 21, 22].
For this reason, this review aimed to explore the psychosocial effects associated with ME/CFS in adolescents and young adults. and highlight the impact on caregivers and parents of patients/children with ME/CFS. It focuses on the isolated, isolated and solitary nature of this disease.
It is important to note that Although some researchers found problems with loneliness when studying people with ME/CFS (i.e. were not studied, in addition, while some researchers found problems with loneliness in their research (i.e. ), those who The authors of these studies initially ignored the variables of loneliness. because it was found Loneliness influences symptom expression in chronic disease (i.e., its ability to exacerbate symptoms in chronic disease – a topic that will be explored in more detail later). We would like to draw attention to this statement in the paper.
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Therefore, this article attempts to address the issues through narrative review First, it aims to highlight the associated psychosocial effects of ME/CFS; Second, what is the overview of loneliness? Loneliness is associated with chronic illness. Third, this paper offers advice on how to cope with the loneliness caused by chronic illness. This is done in hopes of creating a theoretical framework for future research that seeks to bridge the gap in the literature between ME/CFS and loneliness.
Recognizing that no article directly examined the effects of loneliness on ME/CFS, we searched for ME/CFS keywords (e.g. “ME/CFS”, “CFS/ME”, “chronic fatigue syndrome” and ) and paired with loneliness-related keywords (we use the terms “loneliness”, “loneliness”, “loneliness”, “loneliness”, “loneliness”, “exclusionary” and “exclusionary” as Possible pairs for each term ME/CFS keywords) Our search criteria, covering 28 possible searches, found no results in APA PsycNet, Google Scholar, and PubMed.
In the title of the article (for example, the following: “allintitle: ME / CFS loneliness”). Next, we write a new search term. But instead, loneliness-related keywords are used in the title. We changed this criterion so that these words appear anywhere in the abstract or in the body of the article.
There are more than 400 papers, 137 of which fit our topic and are used. Most of these articles are elementary education and textbooks. However, they also include literature reviews. meta-analysis systematic analysis research tools and annual review The search criteria is filtered between 1967 and 2020; However, articles in the last 10 years were highlighted (out of 137 studies, 18 were dated between 1967 and 1999; 20 were dated between 2000 and 2005; 23 were dated between 2005 and 2005. 2009; 32 are dated between 2010 and 2014 and 40 are dated between 2015 and 2020.
Chronic pain can have a serious impact on psychosocial functioning. Some researchers consider the accompanying psychosocial distress to be so severe that they support a dual diagnosis. This includes one component of pain severity.
At the same time it also includes the detrimental functioning of a stressful social environment.  England, as Skelli and Walker  put it, the diagnosis has made it possible for the health community to recognize that Indeed “How does pain affect people’s lives? How and how did they adapt to it?
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